In October 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services officially declared that the opioid crisis constituted a nationwide public health emergency1. The recent recognition of ubiquitous over-prescription of opioids from physicians and policy-makers concurs with this statement. Opioid monotherapy may be considered the standard of care at multiple healthcare institutions given its high magnitude analgesic qualities. However, as noted in the public health emergency declaration, opioid monotherapy is associated with several adverse effects, from respiratory depression to delirium, that may impede post-operative recovery. In response to this scenario, it is introduced that multi-modal pain regimens may affect post-operative pain control for patients, serving as an alternative solution.
Multi-modal pain regimens, also known as multi-modal analgesia, are comprised of two or more pain relief treatments administered simultaneously. The treatments may be pharmacologic agents, such as opioids, anticonvulsants, and benzodiazepines, or non-pharmacologic treatments such as applied heat or ice, massage, or electroanalgesia2. In a broad sense, the appropriate multi-modal pain regimen is decided by anesthesiologists, surgeons and other perioperative physicians. It may vary d