Throughout the history of the medical profession, physicians and students have relied on various forms of patient simulation, utilizing animals and cadavers to supplement their training . Changing attitudes toward patient safety and recognition of the limitations of apprenticeship and spontaneous exposure-based training have motivated the development of more advanced simulation training. Academic anesthesiologists were pioneers in utilizing simulation-based training, adopting the use of full-body mannequins, training models such as crisis resource management (CRM), and assessment of non-technical skills (NTS) early on . Today, patient simulation can take many forms, each with its own strengths and limitations: “standardized patients” (SPs) realistically portray specific conditions and are sometimes trained to evaluate and provide feedback to medical students , patient-specific 3D silicon models allow surgeons to find the best procedural options by trialing different surgical techniques and approaches , and computational models allow for real-time predictions and experimental repetition.
Simulation-based training has been associated with significant effects on educational outcomes in the broader healthcare literature and researchers have quantitatively determined that key instructional design features of simulation-based training can have small to moderate benefits. However, the positive impact of patient simulation on anesthesiology training in particula